Ministry of IT and Telecom Advanced Cybersecurity Course Lecture 2

By | October 12, 2022

Linux Commands:


cd command is used to change the directory


cd FolderName

For Example:

Let’s say I have created 2 folders one is A and another one is B. If I am present in folder A and I want to switch to folder B which is located under the same directory then I can write the above command as.

cd /B

Now We can work in the directory(Folder) B.


pwd stands for print the current working directory

This command is used to print the current working directory.

For example:

This command usually tells about, in which directory currently you are


pwd shows us that we are in B Directory


ls command is used to list files or directories



For Example:

When you type ls, then ls will show you all the files or folders that are present inside a particular directory.

you can use commands like

ls /path of file/DirectoryName

The above command will show you all the files and folders inside a particular directory

ls -a

This command is used to see all the hidden files and folders in a particular directory

ls -l

the above command is used to show files along with properties.


ls -l fileName


to show the properties of a file named “intro.log” we can type the above command as:

ls -l intro.log

Hidden Files and folders in Linux:

In Linux dot ( . ) is present before a hidden file.

How to Hide files in Linux?

When you want to hide any file or folder in Linux just put a dot before that file or folder.

For Example:

.file or .folderName

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